Evidence Base

Evidence Base

Evidence Base

Evidence-Based Outcomes for PAX

Prevention science focuses on the development of evidence-based strategies that reduce risk factors and enhance protective factors to improve the health and wellbeing of individuals, families, and communities. Prevention science draws from a diverse range of disciplines—including the epidemiological, social, psychological, behavioral, medical, and neurobiological sciences—to understand the determinants of societal, community and individual level problems (e.g., trauma, poverty, maltreatment). A central tenet of prevention science is the promotion of health equity and reduction of disparities by studying how social, economic and racial inequalities and discrimination influence healthy development and wellbeing. For well over 50 years, prevention science has generated practices and policies that have improved countless lives throughout the lifespan by avoiding negative health and social outcomes (e.g., addiction, academic failure, violence, mental illness) and strengthening conditions that enable individuals, families, and communities to thrive.

We follow the science

Students in PAX Classrooms demonstrated…

  • higher on Statewide Standardized Math and Reading test scores than their peers.
  • higher reading levels than their peers.
  • reduced need for Special Education Services.
  • higher graduation and college entrance rates.

Teachers in PAX Classrooms demonstrated…

  • higher efficacy in student engagement, instructional strategies, and classroom management.
  • reduced stress after implementing PAX.

Students in PAX Classrooms demonstrated…

  • remarkably fewer problematic behaviors.
  • reduced risk for mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders.
  • fewer symptoms of depression.
  • fewer school-related injuries and symptoms of aggression.
  • reduced rates of bullying.
  • decreased suicide ideation and fewer attempts.

Students in PAX Classrooms demonstrated…

  • decreased tobacco use.
  • reduced alcohol use.
  • decreased illicit drug including opioid abuse.
  • less overall service use for drug abuse or psychiatric disorder.

Click below to see recent PAX outcomes and helpful resources.

PAX GBG Impact Estimator

Predicted Benefits of PAX GBG in Your School, District, Tribe or Community When First Grade Students Reach Adulthood After 1-2 Years of PAX GBG Exposure*

1.359Fewer young people will need any form of special education services
879More boys will likely graduate from high school
1.055More boys will likely enter university
1.402More girls will likely graduate from high school
1.096More girls will likely enter university
154Fewer young people will commit and be convicted of serious violent crimes
1.519Fewer young people will likely develop serious drug addictions
1.039Fewer young people will likely become regular smokers
560Fewer young people will likely develop serious alcohol addictions
766Fewer young women will likely contemplate suicide
1.039Fewer young men will likely attempt suicide
$205.716.000Predicted financial net savings to students, families, schools, communities, state/federal governments
$23,67Estimated Cost of PAX GBG Materials Per Child for Lifetime Protection
$22,00Estimated Cost of External Training & Technical Supports Per Teacher Prorated per Child's Lifetime
$26,80Estimated Cost of Internal Supports for Implementation and Maintence by Teachers Prorated per Child's Lifetime

Note: The forecasts are based on multiple randomized, longitudinal control trials of the active ingredients of this evidence-based practice. Benefits will vary as consequence of the quality of implementation, training, supports, commitment, and other variables; the predicted impact is greater for first-grade children with higher entering risks for internalizing and externalizing disorders. The cost savings and lifetime benefits increase if trained teachers use this evidence-based strategies in succeeding years for new entering cohorts of grade one children. While PAX GBG has well documented immediate benefits for students, teachers and schools in other grades, limited randomized longitudinal data exist to forecast similar benefits for other grades at this time. Coypright © 2013-14, PAXIS Institute, All rights reserved. This estimator may not be used for any other evidence-based program than PAX Good Behavior Game®

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